I recently wrote a blog post for the UCL Centre for Behaviour Change ‘Digi-Hub’ (is it me or does that sound like a Playstation accessory or something?) about some of the digital intervention research presented at the ISPAH conference. It was interesting to reflect specifically on this subject, because it’s such a huge topic and becoming increasingly relevant. And also because I’ve been using digital behaviour change tools myself in my studies (podcasts and walking/running apps amongst others). I have another blog post to write about a fascinating symposium I attended at the conference which was basically about using digital tools to measure and investigate physical activity, but that can wait for another day…Plus, it’s NaNoWriMo! Time to get stuck into writing!
I just got back from a conference in London (ISPAH, International Society for Physical Activity for Health). It was an excellent conference with loads of interesting research and lots of interesting people to talk to. I’ll blog about the conference later, but before I forget I’ll just post my two posters which relate to my Running Commentary and Walk Jog Smile studies.
First off, here is my Walk Jog Smile poster, it’s a short summary of the study and an overview of the main results. I have lots more data to analyse so this is just the headlines!
I presented the second poster as an oral e-poster, which basically involved talking about it in 3 minutes. Not an easy task! This poster is about some interesting stuff I noticed when I was doing the qualitative analysis of the Running Commentary results. The words ‘running is…’ and ‘runners are…’ kept popping up and I dug into these a bit more and looked at how people used these different ideas to negotiate staying with running or dropping out. It was interesting to see how these ideas played out in different ways depending on other concepts people could bring in, or the type of running group or leader or sessions. There are also some practical recommendations which follow on from this, which after all is the point of research to me!
So here is my What They Talk About When They Talk About Running poster, click here for an expanded PDF version!
I’m very happy to get comments, questions or feedback on my posters, leave a comment or email or tweet me! Thanks for dropping by 🙂
Blog number 3? of ??? for the ISBNPA2017 conference. I have been busy working like a Trojan on PhD stuff and well, laundry. If someone else did the family’s laundry for me I think I could probably finish this PhD a year earlier…But anyway, better blog quickly before I forget everything, it’s already been a month!
Friday, I was a bit stiff after running quite a bit the previous day (and frankly, these conference ‘jogs’ are aimed at much faster runners than me…) so I went to the yoga. Ahh, that’s better! I’ve got quite into yoga recently, I just need to find time and a decent class. Luckily both were provided at ISBNPA.
Great yoga session before #ISBNPA2017 this morning! Brilliant way to start a very busy day
The conference started early with a symposium on the psychology of sedentary behaviour. This isn’t really my field but the speakers were great (though #allmalepanel here, tut) Having a female discussant or chair DOES NOT COUNT, MEN TRYING TO JUSTIFY THEIR ALLMALEPANELS, JUST TRY HARDER!
Anyway, it WAS a good symposium. The twinkly Ryan Rhodes kicked off with some really interesting stuff about whether the psychology of physical activity can help us understand and design interventions on sedentary behaviour. I cornered him at the conference dinner and gabbled some completely unintelligible rubbish at him about potential sedentary behaviour interventions based on affect. I’m sure there was some potential in there on the basis that affect might have a greater influence on more habitual sorts of behaviour than exercise, but it was a month ago, it’s all a bit hazy…Rhodes’s talk was sort of a ‘state of play of psychology’s role in sedentary behaviour’ so he had some interesting directions to suggest future research might go in.
He had a good argument: people don’t say stuff like ‘that person is sitting’, they say ‘that person is reading a book’ (though actually, when I was a teen I used to walk whilst reading, I saw a teen boy recently doing that and grinned my head off at the memory of being that stuck in a book), so the ‘sitting’ bit of the reading activity then becomes invisible, so that people underestimate their sedentary behaviour. It was quite interesting actually, if people don’t see that their sitting behaviour as a problem because they’re not aware of their sitting behaviour (it’s just work, playing computer games, watching telly, driving, etc) then how can they even think about whether to change their behaviour?
Finally, Stuart Biddle (who appeared to be imitating a pirate at this conference with his big earring and stubble!) looked at the evidence for mental health and sedentary behaviour
Reverse causality IS a big issue in this area: do people get depressed from sitting too much or do depressed people sit a lot? Cross-sectional studies can’t really distinguish the two. The bit about some types of sedentary behaviour being good for mental health is interesting: as the mum of a teen and a teen in training, I can see that a lot of their social lives outside school are carried out online (leaving aside debates about why that is…), and if people are spending sedentary time engaged in meaningful, enjoyable activities then clearly that can carry mental health benefits.
Talking of teenagers, I was texting my kids in between sessions when they got home from school, with my usual exhortations to get them out of the house and actually doing some form of exercise…
After this it was lunch, my knee was hurting a little bit from all the standing I was doing (not a fan of standing for long periods!), so I was really interested to try out the wobble boards provided in one area, one of them kept throwing people off, but the one I tried was really comfortable and made my legs feel great (must investigate further…)
She made some good points about cultural differences in attitudes towards nudging. Nudging is politically popular (because fundamentally it’s usually cheap and you’re making the right decisions the more convenient ones without denying autonomy). However, cultures differ according to the amount governments are trusted to make decisions on behalf of citizens, etc. This was a really interesting point, and as usual at international conferences it was interesting to reflect on the social norms and priorities of different countries and cultures and how that influences health.
It was a great keynote, but Denise didn’t really answer my question very well. I was describing how Victoria makes it incredibly easy for people to drive by having car parking right outside the shops and letting people pay for parking via an app for a couple of minutes they were there (making it convenient for both local government to collect parking meter money and for locals to pay for parking without even getting out of their car and walking a few metres to a machine!). I was asking whether you could use the concept of nudging to point out that actually, people are being nudged all the time in the WRONG direction, and perhaps you could harness nudging by making the case for less convenience for the undesired behaviour. I don’t think she really understood my question, or maybe I haven’t got the whole concept of nudging, but her reply was that nudging could only ever be in a positive direction (which I thought was a very Dutch answer of hers). I still think there’s a case for the ‘anti-nudge’ but I suppose that has potential to be desperately unpopular. Still, there are limits to what nudging can do for, say, cycling, without at some stage making car driving less convenient (the anti-nudge).
One memorable part of this conference for me was meeting different people from all over the world and seeing things from a slightly different angle. I got chatting to the men below, who were from Hong Kong. I sat in the 2nd row most of the time so I could tweet photos, but they were always in the front row. So I asked them why they always sat there:
Professor Lam and Dr Shen gave me a demo of their ‘zero time exercise’ concept by showing me all the exercise they could do just sitting in their chairs during otherwise unproductive time at a conference. I thought it was a genius idea but would love to know how to make it into something which people could stick to long term. We had a brainstorming session on names ‘Fidget for Fun’! ‘Fidget for your life’! If you want to know more below is Professor Lam on Youtube 🙂 The other thing I found interesting was that it was in complete contrast to any of the physical activity or sedentary behaviour concepts covered during the rest of the conference. I wondered whether actually this had to do with cultural differences, with Western concepts of physical activity as either needing to be ‘proper’ exercise or at a pinch walking or cycling for transport, and also whether things like t’ai chi, with its very slow controlled movements played into the idea of chair exercise as being a valid form of exercise. Really fascinating stuff!
And that was it for what I tweeted that day, I think I had to nip off early to go and get changed ready for the conference dinner, which was all a bit odd but great fun meeting a big range of people in a room which used to be a swimming pool. I left early because I was absolutely knackered and still had to get the bus back to my AirBnB (couldn’t work out whether the chap who talked to me on the bus was just being friendly or chatting me up, Victoria is just that kind of place!) They were all ultra-polite!
People in Victoria are sooo polite, they say thank you to the bus driver even when they get out the back door & the driver can't even hear!
Eurgh, I am SOOOO jetlagged! I have conference blog number ? to write but my brain is just not cooperating right now. Plus this is apparently the one week of the year when England decides to imitate the weather of Singapore.
So I’m just going to link to my conference posters. I had a bunch of interesting conversations about both posters, but it was noticeable that the Running Commentary study one attracted a lot more attention than my Resolve to Walk study one. I *think* this might be related to the colourful photo I used of a woman wearing a bright pink bra (over her clothes, I wasn’t aiming for the lingerie ad look!), whereas people said they thought the map on my Resolve to Walk poster was attractive but fewer people came and talked to me about it. Take-home message: depressingly, sex does indeed sell…
Anyway, here is the Running Commentary poster, I called it ‘Accentuate the positive: how beginner running groups manage affective responses to exercise’, you can enlarge it by clicking here. The concept behind this poster came less from the thematic analysis itself than from my ponderings over what sort of things were different in an outdoor, group exercise context compared with an individual exercising in a lab. And one thing which really leapt out at me when observing the groups and listening to the audio recordings was a real sense of group positivity which is obviously missing from an individual exercising alone. As well as using my field notes and analysing the transcripts, I also looked at the themes which I’d drawn out which implied some sort of positive emotion and/or emotion regulation. There were more themes than I could fit into the poster, so this is very much a work in progress, in particular in future work on this I would like to look at the role of reappraisal as an affect regulation strategy, as there is research suggesting that it is an important strategy, along with distraction (Augustine and Hemenover, 2009; Rose and Parfitt, 2010).
My second poster was from my Resolve to Walk study, and squeezed in some mixed methods results on the main question of my PhD: does how people feel during exercise relate to their future physical activity behaviour in real life (not laboratory) situations? The answer from my quantitative analyses seems to suggest it doesn’t, which is counter-intuitive but I had some ideas about why the context here was important (which is why it is really useful to use mixed methods to dig into this context). Although my finding was counterintuitive, I also think it makes sense: most people feel better during walking, yet people tend not to walk if they can possibly avoid it (this is fundamentally why there is so much research on physical activity, after all!). Although the results of interventions seem to show that how people feel during walking on a treadmill is related to their future physical activity levels, going for a walk outdoors during your lunch hour doesn’t seem to be similarly related. I speculated that there might be an effect that people feel much better during an outdoor walk compared with a treadmill walk. I actually have an interesting graph showing the trends in affective responses during walking in different environments from a load of different studies, but unfortunately there wasn’t space to squeeze this into my poster. The take-home from the graph though is that people feel considerably better during outdoor walking compared with on a treadmill, with one study actually showing a decline in affective response when walking on a treadmill. This is slightly complicated by studies using participants of different activity levels, but fundamentally it just seems to feel more pleasant walking outdoors (I know, shocking, right?) There are also some alternative explanations for my results, such as a lack of power compared with other studies, the self-report nature of the measures at 6 months and perhaps the nature of the study itself (being a more naturalistic sort of field study rather than a formal intervention).
From my qualitative interviews with participants, a number of reasons for walking or not walking emerged. Interestingly, many of these seem to map onto walking domains, dimensions and correlates from Paul Kelly’s paper, suggesting that the multi-dimensional nature of walking is not just an issue for physical activity researchers, but also for participants themselves. It seems as if the meanings behind walking had participants confused when it came to setting and meeting walking goals, because there are so many different aspects and types of walking.
So here is the second poster, the map is from a Strava route I made (I asked participants to use the Strava app on their phones to log their walking) and again my thoughts on this poster are at a very preliminary stage. Click here for an expanded version of the poster!
Any comments or questions on either poster would be extremely welcome 🙂
Well we’ll see how this goes as to just how long this is, might need to be a couple of blogs because wow, there was a LOT going on during this conference! I’ve basically just used my Twitter stream as a long blog with some comments on stuff I found particularly interesting.
Thursday dawned durky and rainy, which was nice for the morning conference jog. 2 very lovely local ladies took me around a local park, I assume the views were nice but my glasses kept steaming up in the rain!
Thursday required quite a lot of logistics as my AirBnB was 2 miles away, the conference started at 8am and the jog was at 7am, with the fun run in the evening. Lots of quick changes and extra running kit required! Luckily I’d put my posters up the previous evening (will link to PDFs in another blog)
There were some questions about discontinuing use which were interesting but a bit surface level to my mind. I think perhaps the emotional aspects could be more important perhaps? If you have a spell where you’re not as active as you ‘should’ be, this could be frustrating and perhaps even embarrassing. It’s fine to get a nice ego boost for getting 15000 steps in a day, but if you have a day where you’re chained to the desk and get a couple of thousand, that to me is quite negative information likely to make you stop using a tracker, especially if this happens a lot …
One annoying thing about conferences is that you miss stuff happening in parallel sessions, but that’s where Twitter comes in handy! I need to find out more about this study as it looks really relevant to my research:
Next up was the poster session, I had lots of interesting conversations about my posters (and people said they liked my titles!) though I really wish the organisers had put my posters next to each other and not back to back on one board! It was noticeable that my running poster with the photo of the BRA got the most attention…
I also chatted with Elaine Hargreaves, whose paper I based my running study on, oh the excitement! It was really cool chatting to her about the study, particularly as one of the recommendations in the paper was to do a similar study in a more ecologically valid context (which is pretty much what I did!)
I went and looked at some of the posters after my session had finished, as I love seeing other people’s work even if it’s not quite in my area, I liked the one above about harassment of cyclists. The ones below I was sorry to miss the authors of, but it was great to see some running research:
The final session of the day for me was a symposium on behaviour change maintenance, which was fascinating. Mainly because nobody knows how to define it, how to measure it, what to do about it. Which is kinda unfortunate when it’s the DEFINING problem of behaviour change!
I was really flagging by this stage, but there was a fascinating talk by Rachel (think that was her first name, the programme just says ‘R’) Burns from McGill on using incentives in maintenance of physical activity. For some reason I didn’t tweet any other slides from this symposium. She had some interesting thoughts on applying stuff from other fields, such as pro-environmental behaviour. But I’m a bit sceptical about how lessons from a fairly habitual behaviour like recycling can be translated into physical activity, which seems much less habitual (though this is debatable given the definition of physical activity when it includes some quite automatic behaviour like active travel…)
Finally, Ryan Rhodes discussed some of the issues brought up by the talks, and encouraged discussion. But frankly, everyone was either too bewildered or too knackered by this stage of the evening (starting at 8am and finishing after 6pm is a LOT of brain work!) It would be really useful to keep discussing this subject as it’s such a key idea. Personally I have my own ideas about maintenance and what it looks like, which I think is different from most ideas because the very way RCTs are set up implies a certain model of a person, and a certain model of behaviour, and people are NOT that simple! Maybe I’ll write something about my Wave Theory of Behaviour Change Maintenance in the future.
Anyway, by now it was time for the conference fun run, the rain had gone and the wind had whipped up. We ran along the waterfront and out to the ‘breakwater’ and running back with the wind behind us was as much fun as running into it was hard work!
I staggered back onto the bus to go back to my AirBnb and collapse into bed, it was quite a long day, not helped by the general election unfolding in the UK, and I was trying to keep up with events there too!
Right, that’s enough wittering for now, I’ll obviously have to do a blog post for each day of the conference given how much there is to talk about. I find it really useful to reflect on the things I found useful or interesting during a conference. Sometimes they are not at all what you might expect, which was the case for Friday’s sessions…
This is a blog about a conference I attended last week, ISBNPA2017 (International Society for Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, it’s a mouthful so people call it IZ-BIN-PA) It was a wonderful conference and I learnt so much, so I’m going to quickly jot stuff down about it before it disappears in a haze of travel and jetlag. In fact, it will have to be a couple of blogs, there is so much to cover! And this one alone will consume far more screen ink than strictly necessary, just look at the photos if you’re short of time.
I arrived early in Victoria, BC. I’d never been to Canada before so I was really excited! I met up with my good friend Elizabeth Ablah, from Wichita Kansas, we talked our heads off because we hadn’t seen each other since the Edinburgh ISNBNPA 2 years earlier. Apologies to the other people on the bus for our cackling and shrieking, we were excited to be together again…We did make good friends with a couple on the bus from Adelaide, but we forgot to ask their names so we spent the week texting each other possible names for them (It’s Bill and Pat, by the way. Elaine is just wrong, and certainly NOT Philip!)
We took the bus to the famous Butchart Gardens, and Elizabeth almost had a coronary with excitement at all the flowers. None of them had name labels on them (why not?!) so I had to delve deep into my memory to recall most of the names. I do now know the difference between azaleas and rhododendrons (azaleas have 5 stamens and rhododendrons 10+). The peonies were TO DIE FOR. And the irises were pretty amazing too. The front gardens of the houses in Victoria and Vancouver were just incredible, I’m going home determined to make my front garden as pretty as some of the ones I saw in Canada!
There was a lovely Japanese garden at Butchart, and a little pond with stepping stones across. We watched as a chap did some yoga (crow pose) on the stepping stones and applauded. Then Elizabeth decided to have a go…
Well, it was a very hot and sunny day, and she was wearing technical fabric trousers, they dried remarkably quickly!
She grazed her chin though, so we had to take selfies with weird chin-hiding going on so she didn’t feel bad about it.
I kind of promised her I wouldn’t put these photos on Twitter. I never promised her not to put them on the internet full stop…
Wednesday morning dawned and I decided to go for a run, it was pretty spectacular. Look at these photos!
Back to the AirBnB and quick shower and onto the bus to town for an 8am start (jet lag is REALLY handy sometimes, I was awake at 4 or 5 every day). Today there was a choice of pre-conference workshops, and whole day vs half day ones. I really like doing pre-conference workshops, you get to know people in much smaller groups compared with the main conference, you get lots of discussion and you get hands on experience with different methods and issues. I would say that they are the most useful (and sociable) part of any conference and definitely worth attending.
The first workshop I chose was on nudging. This was fantastic, as a psychologist I am really intrigued by the concept of nudging. It was run by the magnificent Denise de Ridder (no other adjective could apply) and Emely de Vett, both from the Netherlands. There was some discussion on the ethics of nudging, which I won’t cover here, but some interesting cultural differences were raised. If you’re at all interested in nudging, there are some papers on Denise’s website which are worth reading. And the self-regulation paper with Mann and Fujita linked to on there is just brilliant!
As part of this workshop Denise and Emely presented some guidelines for developing and evaluating nudges for us to use, this was a bit confusing because there seemed to be 2 sets of guidelines given with lots of overlap, but the main issue was that this workshop really needed to be a full day affair, I think. We split into small groups and were tasked with coming up with a problem and a nudge to address the problem. A chap in our group from a cancer organisation in the US came up with an interesting problem, which was how to improve sun exposure during physical activity, because melanoma rates are high in people who spend time being physically active outdoors. Again, cultural differences were really interesting here, because a woman called Vicky was from Newcastle in Australia and had a whole list of ways sun exposure was tackled there. I grew up in Sydney and I have to say I’m astonished at how much things have changed since then! Nowadays kids have big hats as part of their uniform, sunscreen is provided in parks (with little umbrellas to stop the contents degrading!), the list goes on. So she had lots of ideas for how this issue could be addressed. Jan Seghers (who is Flemish) and me had less experience of needing sunscreen to be active outdoors…
We came up with a nudge (getting local youth sports organisations to provide pop up sun shelters and big bottles of sunscreen as part of the team kit), worked out the logistics, who was being nudged (the coach, the organisations, the kids) and added some evaluation ideas. It was an interesting exercise, and we addressed lots of different issues like social norms and how to make sure it was a ‘nudge’ instead of being compulsory. My idea for using social norms was to get the kids to wear zinc cream on their faces in the team colours, on the assumption that kids like face painting, wearing colours on your face is already associated with sports (think cricket players, football fans etc), and that if you were the one kid without green paint on your face you might stand out. I liked this idea!
There was more stuff about nudges in Denise’s keynote later in the conference, so I’ll cover that later. I think it’s such a cool area to work in though, so many possibilities…
The second half of the day was a workshop on prescribing walking for health. We had a stellar lineup for this: Marie Murphy, Paul Kelly, Elaine Murtagh and Catrine Tudor-Locke. What a fantastic bunch of people! They clearly had a lot of fun coming up with ideas for this workshop, and we all had a lot of fun doing the activities, plus we got some incidental sightseeing done down at the waterfront at the same time 🙂
First we had a quick whistlestop tour of research on walking and the health benefits (at least 5000 steps a day to not be ‘The Walking Dead’, the hashtag #BeMoreAmish needs to trend), and some stuff about cadence being important (at least 100 steps per minute for health). Then we set off in pairs to look at measurement stuff. We had a heart rate monitor, a steps app, a pedometer, a stopwatch and some music downloaded to our phones. We looked at different walking speeds and how they could be changed (music was very effective) and their effects on heart rate, the accuracy of pedometers and walking apps, and used the Feeling Scale to change walking speed. It was very interesting but there was nowhere near enough time to cover everything in the activity and ponder the results in depth. It was good though to get a flavour of some of the issues involved in this area, and the walking with music was an interesting concept. Though I wish my bluetooth headphones had talked to my phone because listening to I Gotta Feeling blaring out on my phone whilst striding along made me feel like a total numpty!
The final part of this workshop looked at different walking domains, dimensions and correlates using a paper by Paul Kelly. We were asked to consider which of these would be useful in walking interventions for different groups of people. It was really interesting to think about how different types of people have completely different requirements and preferences, and I think that this ‘Edinburgh Framework’ is an excellent jumping-off point for covering different aspects of walking. Funnily enough, the different walking domains came up as a real issue in the Resolve to Walk study I did. The poster I presented at this conference actually covered the problem of different types of walking and the meanings of this for participants, so this is something which is not just a problem for researchers, but also for participants themselves in terms of what walking is, and the reasons for doing it.
Right, that’s quite enough screen ink for one blog! If you read this far, give yourself a medal! I’m off to explore Vancouver. The walking domains covered will be a combination of active travel and leisure time walking 🙂